In 1998, IWK initiated Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) and Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) to carry out research on sewage and sludge treatment respectively. Since then IWK’s R&D Programme had evolved to comprise structured R&D collaborations with local research institutions as the core of IWK’s R&D programme. Structured R&D with local research institutions are mainly funded by IWK whilst leveraging on the local research institutions niche expertise to address key needs of improving  sewage and sludge treatment along with reuse potentials over the long term.